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28July

Rainwater Harvesting and Filtration

Rainwater  Harvesting and Filtration

Many Australians rely on rainwater as their water supply for their daily needs. The general public perception is that rainwater is safe to drink. In most areas of Australia, the risk of illness arising from consumption is relatively low, providing it is visually clear, has little taste or smell and, importantly, the storage and collection of rainwater is via a well maintained tank and roof catchment system.

Australian Households using rainwater.

Source ABS 2010

 

This water may be used as if it was potable water and sometimes without any filtration and disinfection.   That the water comes from the skies and is always safe to drink, is a fallacy.   As the rainwater is harvested on the roof, any organic and inorganic material including faecal matter is collected into the rainwater tank.  Live animals may also get trapped in the tank and drown providing a source of nutrients and high risk of bacterial contamination.   Algae can also grow where the water is exposed to sunlight.   Most tanks will also contain mosquito larvae which feed on the organic nutrients collected in the tank.

Odours from sediments and slimes are the most commonly reported. Sediment can accumulate in the bottom of tanks that have not been cleaned frequently enough. In warm to hot weather, anaerobic conditions can develop, leading to growth of microorganisms that produce sulphides, with a distinctive sewage or rotten egg-like smell. Listed below are some water parameters that can impact your water quality:

pH 
pH levels in rainwater are normally below 7 and considered acidic. This is because carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is absorbed which in turn converts to carbonic acid.  In plastic tanks the pH will remain acidic  and can corrode copper plumbing and brass fittings.  Also see : http://www.abc.net.au/local/stories/2010/11/24/3075218.htm

 If the rainwater is stored in concrete tanks the acidic water will cause lime from the concrete to leach into the water. 

Calcite filters are recommended for an appropriate treatment of acidic water.

Turbidity 

Turbidity is the measure of relative clarity of a liquid. It is an optical characteristic of water and is an expression of the amount of light that is scattered by material in the water when a light is shined through the water sample. The higher the intensity of scattered light, the higher the turbidity. Material that causes water to be turbid include clay, silt, finely divided inorganic and organic matter, algae, soluble colored organic compounds, and plankton and other microscopic organisms.

Tannins

Tannins are a natural organic material that can be the byproducts of nature’s fermentation process, be created as water passes through decaying vegetation in the gutters. This can cause water to have a faint yellow to tea-like colour, and can cause yellow staining on fabrics, fixtures, china and laundry.

 Conductivity 
Rainwater in its natural state, is very close to de-ionised but after passing over the  roof, conductivity levels can be elevated due to contaminants that may be dissolved in  the rain water.

Hardness 
In its natural state rainwater is very soft and ideal for washing and laundry and  under some conditions for hot water systems.  The water also has a low alkalinity and that combined with soft water and low pH results in the rain water causing corrosion and that includes copper plumbing .

Total Suspended Solids .

Suspended solids refers to small solid particles which remain in suspension in water as a colloid or due to the motion of the water. It is used as one indicator of water quality.  A colloid is a solution that has particles ranging between 1 and 1000 nanometers in diameter, yet are still able to remain evenly distributed throughout the solution.

Coliform Colony Counts 
The most basic test for bacterial contamination of a water supply is the test for total coliform bacteria. Total coliform counts give a general indication of the sanitary condition of a water supply

Prevention is better than cure

There are a number of steps that can be taken by the householder to ensure good quality rainwater.

Gutter Guard

Gutter Guard or mesh can help prevent  leaves and other organic  matter from reaching the rainwater tank.

First Flush diverters

Are readily available from hardware stores, or can easily made up yourself.

Regular tank cleaning and inlet screen filter maintenance.

Effective filtration and disinfection.

Effective filtration and UV Disinfection will provide you with safe drinking water

The filtration steps should comprise at  least of a 10 micron sediment filter, followed by an antibacterial silver impregnated activated carbon filter and final UV disinfection step.

For higher flow rates we recommend automated backwash filters. Zeolite and activated glass media filters are very effective in removing suspended solids.  Activated Carbon filters can remove dissolved organics and any bad odours and taste. An occasional backwash will ensure that any colloidal or organic material is removed It is very important to use silver impregnated carbon or antibacterial carbon, as organics trapped in the organic matrix can aggravate the problem. 

Environmental factors

Environmental Factors should also be considered.  Any dust that is blown onto your roof may end up in your water tank.  This  may include dust from a mine ,  agricultural activity that could include pesticides and fertilisers.  If the water runs off old asbestos roofing, or is in contact with plumbing that contains lead solder are factors that should be considered as well.

Water Testing

Water testing should be carried out at least once a year to see what contaminants are present. There are easy DIY test kits which can provide an indication of whether your rainwater is not contaminated.

complete water testing for your home

Conclusion

Rainwater harvesting has become an important factor in conserving our most precious resource. More than ever, Australians are relying on rainwater as their potable water supply.  Preventative Maintenance is an important factor in ensuring a safe water supply. Preventing organic and inorganic matter from getting into the tank can reduce the risk of bacterial contamination, algae growth and reduce the amount of suspended and colloidal material in your water tank. Sediment and carbon filtration  followed by ultraviolet disinfection are highly recommended to ensure a safe source of drinking water. Calcite filter should also be considered to ensure that the water is not corrosive, and will cause corrosion to your plumbing.

03May

IRON REMOVAL FILTERS BORE WATER

Removal of iron from borewater – Case Study Blenners Transport -Darra QLD

Iron removal filters have become an important water treatment process  for providing clean and safe drinking water in Australia. Small amounts of iron are frequently present in water because iron is  naturally present in the soil and because corrosive water will pick up iron from unprotected  ferrous pipes. The presence of iron in water is considered objectionable because it imparts a brownish /orange colour to laundered goods and affects the taste of beverages such as tea and coffee. Some bore waters however could contain very high levels (>100mg/L). There is no health related guideline value for iron. However, for aesthetic reasons (taste and staining) the concentration of iron in drinking water should not exceed 0.3mg/L. The most economical way of removing iron from water is by aeration (dissolved iron is oxidised and precipitates out of solution as rust Fe2O3). Iron dissolved in groundwater delivered via irrigation systems can produce unsightly rust stains on buildings, paths, fences and plants in many areas, especially on the Perth coastal plain. It may also stain clothes washed in iron-rich water and plumbing fixtures such as basins and toilet bowls. These rust stains resist cleaning with soaps, detergents and bleach.  The iron can also foul membrane systems, and it is imperative to remove the iron prior to membrane filtration. 

DMI-65 is an extremely powerful catalytic water filtration media that is designed for the removal of iron and manganese in aqueous solutions (water) without the need for potassium permanganate regeneration. The unique microporous structure of DMI-65 efficiently removes dissolved iron to the almost undetectable levels as low as 0.001 ppm and manganese to 0.001 ppm. DMI-65 acts as an oxidation catalyst with immediate oxidation and filtration of the insoluble precipitates derived from this oxidation reaction. DMI-65 can also remove Arsenic, Aluminium and other heavy metals and Hydrogen Sulphide under certain conditions.  The removal of iron is based on the oxidation reaction that converts ferrous soluble iron into insoluble ferric hydroxide which precipitates in crystalline form aggregates of size from 3 nanometres and larger. The aggregates coagulate in larger flocks and are retained in the catalytic bed.

In order for this oxidation reaction to proceed unimpeded, a continuous source of nascent oxygen is required. This is facilitated by the dosage of Sodium Hypochlorite solution (typically 12.5%) and maintain a free residual chlorine content during normal operation and also during backwash.

An example is demonstrated below .

Removal of iron using DMI 65

Bore water with iron content of 2.8 ppm iron, 0.2 ppm Manganese was to be used as cooling water for a refrigeration system at a transport company. Service flow is 120 litres per minute, and filtered water is stored in a large storage tank. 

The solution proposed was a DMI-65 twin filter system with 293 Magnum Control Head, where the flow is split to supply equal flow to each filter. This solution would then allow the 21” vessels to be backwashed at the required flow rate of 120 litres per minute.

 Bore water Before and after filtration

Another issue that is sometimes associated with iron is low pH.  In cooling water applications, neutral pH or higher than 7 is required to reduce the corrosiveness of the water. The total alkalinity was also  less than 40 ppm therefor causing a negative Langelier saturation index. This alone may not indicate that the water is corrosive, however in this instance it may be necessary to increase the pH without adding hardness to the water. This is achieved by dosing for instance with soda ash. In this example chlorine was dosed at approximately 3 mg/l to achieve  free chlorine level of >0.2 mg/l downstream of the iron removal filters.   The final iron content (total) was below 0.01 ppm.

In this example the dosing of Sodium Hypochlorite is preferred as that will also  have a secondary function as a biocide in cooling water. Cooling water towers can be ideal breeding grounds for biological growth, including algae, bacteria, sulphate-reducing bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. If not properly controlled, these organisms will form a layer of bio-slime that acts as a natural adhesion surface for scale formation, resulting in increased corrosion rates, restricted water flow, and reduced system efficiency.  

 

 

19March

Citric Acid Uses

Citric Acid Uses 

Citric acid is a weak organic acid that is produced as a white crystalline powder. It is a natural food preservative that is also used to add an acidic, or sour taste to foods and soft drinks. In biochemistry, it is important as an intermediate in the Krebs (citric acid) cycle and therefore occurs in the metabolism of virtually all living things. Citric acid can also be used as an environmentally benign cleaning agent. It is also commonly used in the food industry as a preservative and also acidity regulator.

This article looks at some of the applications for citric acid.   Pacific Water Technology supplies the citric acid  as a crystalline powder (anhydrous) or solution with up to 50% concentration.  For specialised applications there is also a high purity solution made up with demineralised water and citric acid.

Some of the applications for citric acid:

Citric Acid for pH control: Citric acid is a weak organic acid and is often favoured for pH control in the food industry.  Some  examples are the poultry industry where chlorination is used in the spin chillers for disinfecting the chicken carcasses. The water has a very high organic load and chlorination can be very ineffective if not carried out at a pH of 6.5.  The reason for this is that the dissociation of the sodium hypochlorite into hypochlorous acid  is only effective at lower pH.  Citric acid can effectively reduce and maintain the pH at levels where chlorination is at its’ most effective without increasing the risk of generating dangerous levels of trihalomethanes and chloramines.

Citric Acid as preservative and food additive:

Citric Acid is commonly use in the food industry as a buffering agent, acidity regulator, preservative and food additive for food, beverages and pharmaceutical products.

In its broadest sense, a food additive is any substance added to food. Legally, the term refers to “any substance the intended use of which results or may reasonably be expected to result — directly or indirectly — in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food.”

In most of beverages, citric acid (E 330) is the first choice for use as an acid regulator, as it has several additional benefits, such as enhancing the activity of beneficial antioxidants and adding aroma

Citric Acid as a descaler

Citric acid is a popular environmental friendly descaler  for coffee machines , kettles, shower screens  and other areas that may experience scale build-up. It is also used in industrial scale often in conjunction with other cleaning agents for cleaning RO  and other membranes .   It is also used for descaling heat transfer surfaces in heat exchangers.

 

17November

The dangers lurking in dam, river or other untreated water supplies

A large proportion of Australians rely on untreated or minimally treated water supplies,  for their daily water requirements.   Recent events have highlighted the dangers of untreated water supplies, even when the water is not consumed.  Naegleria infects people by entering the body when water containing the amoeba goes up the nose. This may occur when people swim, dive or fall into warm freshwater containing Naegleria.  Also see Australian Story .

The dangers lurking in stagnant waters

The dangers lurking in stagnant waters-Source: Wikipedia

Infections have occurred following domestic bathing, for example when young children fall or slip in a bath of water containing Naegleria. The amoebae travel up the nose to the brain where they infect and destroy brain tissue. Naegleria fowleri, also  known as the “brain-eating amoeba“, is a species of  free-living, bacteria-eating amoeba that can be pathogenic, causing a ) brain infection.This microorganism is typically found in bodies of warm freshwater, such as ponds, lakes, rivers, and hot springs. There is no reason why this bacteria could not also be encountered in rain water tanks.

There are other water borne bacteria and viruses as well, and some people may build up some level of immunity  against some of these potentially lethal microbes.    Legionella is just another example of a bacteria, that thrives in warm stagnant water. Rain water that falls from the skies is perceived safe to drink,  and provides a false sense of security- the same applies to dams and rivers that may be located in prestine environments.   Others in the community in particular older people and children may not have the same level of immunity – and it just is not worth it to roll the dice .   The best way to ensure your water supply is safe is to have some levels of filtration and ultraviolet disinfection. UV radiation affects microorganisms by altering the DNA in the cells and impeding reproduction. UV treatment does not remove organisms from the water, it merely inactivates them. The effectiveness of this process is related to exposure time and lamp intensity as well as general water quality parameters.  

Used alone, UV radiation does not improve the taste, odour, or clarity of water. UV light is a very effective disinfectant, although the disinfection can only occur inside the unit. There is no residual disinfection in the water to inactivate bacteria that may survive or may be introduced after the water passes by the light source.  It is therefor necessary to treat the water immediately after it is pumped from the water source, and prior to consumption. Water for recreational use should also be treated. The percentage of microorganisms destroyed depends on the intensity of the UV light,  the contact time, raw water quality, and proper maintenance of the equipment.  Any stagnant water like  inflatable pools may also require supplementary disinfection like chlorination.

uv-disinfection-31

The natural way to disinfect without chemicals

Contact your local PWT specialist and we can recommend the most suitable disinfection solution for your water requirements.

 

For more on our range of UV disinfection systems : 

Brochure pacific-water-uv-guard-slt-series-brochure

04July

Water Softeners Commercial Kitchens

Water Softeners  Commercial Kitchens

Pacific Water Technology recently commissioned a new water softener commercial kitchen at Algester Nursing Home to treat the water supply to the commercial kitchen and laundry.   The facility has been struggling with scale build-up inside the hot water systems, steamers and dishwashers .  The problem in particular manifested itself as scale inside the headers clogging up the  steam nozzles. Brisbane water  supply is considered hard and can  reach almost 150 mg/l   CaCO3.   In simple terms , the water contains minerals like calcium and magnesium that become insoluble when heated and drop out of solution as a white deposit( lime build-up) .

Calcium and magnesium ions  (these are both positive ions) in water join with the soap to form as insoluble curd and reduce the effectiveness of the soap as a washing agent. The real problem comes when you try to wash the curd out of the clothes because as an insoluble material it sticks to the fibres of the clothes, does not re-dissolve and is left behind after rinsing.  So you may have added dirt to the clothes (in the form of these insoluble calcium and magnesium compounds) rather than cleaning them. Clothes may feel damp even though they are dry, and do not have a ‘crispness’ after washing. Over time, this soap curd will give a dull yellow colour to white materials.

Increasing your appliance life and eliminating lime deposits

Increasing your appliance life and eliminating lime deposits

In the bath or shower, soap is difficult to get a lather with hardwater and instead of feeling slippery it seems difficult to wash.

Other classification systems are intermediate to the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (2004)and refer to various scales of total hardness as:

    soft                                        <17 mg/L CaCO3
    slightly hard                     17-60 mg/L CaCO3
    moderately hard              60-120 mg/L CaCO3
    hard                                        120-180 mg/L CaCO3
    very hard                            >180 mg/L CaCO3

An effective way to solve your hard water problem is to remove the hardness ions from your water using an ion exchange  water softener.

How ion exchange water softeners work?

One of the biggest misconceptions about water softeners is that the salt is what softens your water. What actually softens the water are thousands of tiny resin beads within the tank that filter out hard water chemicals. The salt is used to clean the resin beads during a regeneration cycle, allowing the system to continually remove hardness from your water supply.

There are many different types of softeners, each with its own benefits. The method used most often in homes is cation exchange, the principles of which are simple. An ion is an electrically charged atom or group of atoms. A cation is a positively charged ion. The water is softened when the hardness ions (magnesium and calcium) are exchanged for sodium ions. This exchange occurs in a resin bed during the softening cycle.  

 

Three main parts make up most water softeners:  

  • Resin Tank – Contains the resin bed. 

water softeners commercial kitchens

World class water softening resin for commercial applications

  • Resin Bed – This is made up of tiny bead-like material often made of styrene and divinylbenzene. The beads attract and hold positively charged ions such as sodium, but will exchange them whenever the bead encounters another positively-charged ion such as calcium or magnesium. 

     

  • Brine Tank – This tank holds the dissolved salt solution that is necessary to regenerate the resin. Regeneration refers to reversing the ion exchange operation. The magnesium and calcium ions are driven off of the resin beads and replaced by positively charged sodium ions. The regeneration occurs when the resin beads are washed with a strong salt water solution. The salt forces the calcium and magnesium ions to be released, and they are then discharged as waste during the backwashing cycle. The beads are ready to once again attract hardness ions from the water. 

    Benefits of Softened Water

    Even for those whose water is slightly hard, significant benefits can result from using softened water:  

    • Water heating efficiencies on systems using softened water may be increased up to 29 percent if heating with gas, and 22 percent if using electricity. (Source: New Mexico State University Study) 

    • The life of the plumbing system may increase because clogging from scale within pipes will be reduced. 

    • Many appliances may last longer and perform better. 

    • Soapy residue on clothes is reduced so they may look and wear better. 

    • Skin and hair can be rinsed more completely, making hair look shinier and skin cleaner. 

    • Film on tubs and shower tiles may be reduced, as will scratching to bathroom fixtures and sinks. 

    Pacific Water Technology is located in Brisbane and we supply water softeners across Australia for comemercial and industrial applications.

21February

10 Things to consider when buying a residential reverse osmosis system

 

Buying a new water purifier or reverse osmosis system for your home can be simplified if you get in prepared with the necessary knowledge. Before buying a new unit consider this:

1.Any RO system should comprise of at least three pre-filter stages – one sediment pre-filter rated at 5 microns, and two granular activated carbon filters. The granular activated carbon filters should ideally be catalytic carbon to remove chloramines.

filters three stage

2. The pre-filters are an important part of your Reverse Osmosis Filter, the sediment filter protects the carbon filters, and the carbon filters protect the reverse osmosis membrane, which is prone to oxidation damage from chlorine or chloramine.  Chloramines are a combination of ammonia with chlorine. Unlike straight chlorine, which dissipates fairly quickly when exposed to air, chloramines remain in the water. Chloramines are very difficult to remove from your water supply.Chloramine_Diagram

 

3.Ensure that your RO membrane is from a reputable company like DOW TFC membranes, and should be at least 50 GPD( gallons per day).

dow membrane tfc

4.Be wary of any salesman that tells you that they have a pure water to waste water ratio of 1:1 . The ratio is more likely going to be 1:3 or 1:5 (pure:waste) . This ratio is necessary to ensure continuous high performance of your RO membrane, and helps flush contaminants from the tiny pores(0,0001 microns) which otherwise can get clogged.  This ratio is also dependent on a number of factors including water quality.  High dissolved solid content like for instance hard water, will require a higher flush rate. A  flow restrictor by-pass is also recommended as that will help clean out the membrane surface by initiating a high flow.

comparative sizing

5.Residential RO membranes can only be used for town water supply i.e. chlorinated water with relatively low dissolved solid content. They should not be used for river, dam or rain water.  Special membranes are required for brackish and seawater and they require significantly different configurations to suit the increased osmotic pressure caused by the increased salinity.  Seawater which has a salt content of above 35,000 ppm would require at least 24 Bar just to overcome the osmotic pressure. Residential RO systems should be operated at pressures of 300 to 800 kPa( 3-8 Bar)- low water pressure means you would require a booster pump with your RO system, which is normally just a add-on.

6.The purified water from your reverse osmosis system is slightly acidic as the water is devoid of any minerals and the remaining CO2 gas in the water causes the slight acidic conditions. Hence we recommend a mineral or alkaline stage that does two things; it provides minerals back into the water (Calcium, Magnesium, etc) and also increases the ph to levels above 8. The added minerals will also help provide buffering capacity to the water.

PH-Scale

7.Reverse osmosis systems are the best purifier to remove fluoride from water. The level of fluoride added is typically 0.5 ppm .  Activated carbon does not remove fluoride, activated alumina and ion exchange resins with fluoride specific ions can, but require significant contact time.  They also become saturated and to find out when that happens can be rather expensive. Measuring residual fluoride in water in the parts per billion range is very expensive- and the filter sales people know that. It is therefore better to rely on reverse osmosis filters, as the method of removal is by size exclusion. The size of the fluoride ion is larger than the tiny pores of a membrane which are only 0.0001 microns.

8.There are three options for RO systems ; Tank option ,direct flow option and also units that automatically fill up a portable reservoir . A buffer tank with a bladder provides adequate flow when you want to fill up a glass.  Ensure the tank is manufactured from food grade approved materials.  Direct flow units are also popular but to be practical should produce at least 400 GPD of purified water.  Automatic RO systems like the Astroboy, are becoming very popular as they allow the portable container to be taken anywhere, or positioned into a water dispenser.

ASTROBOY

9.A final stage carbon polishing filter is also recommended to ensure there is no residual taint as a result of water sitting in the line or the storage tank

10.Quick change cartridges are becoming very popular, as they require very little effort to replace and no tools.  Remember be very diligent about changing cartridges- as that will ultimately ensure consistent good quality water and ensure your reverse osmosis membrane will last at least 3 years.

 

 purepro quick chnage

Nominal impurity removal characteristics of TFC RO membrane

Material

Symbol

% Removal

Material

Symbol

% Removal

Calcium

Sodium

Magnesium

Potassium

Manganese

Iron

Aluminum

Copper

Nickel

Cadmium

Silver

Zinc

Mercury

Chloride

Ammonium

Bromide

Phosphate

Cyanide

Ca

Na

Mg

K

Mn

Fe

Al

Cu

Ni

Cd

Ag

Zn

Hg

Cl

NH4

Br

PO4

CN

94-97

90-93

96-98

87-94

95-98

95-98

98-99

98-99

98-99

96-98

93-98

98-99

96-98

87-93

86-92

87-93

98-99

86-92

Sulfate

Thiosulfate

Silicate

Bicarbonate

Nitrate

Sulphite

Borate

Fluoride

Phosphate

Strontium

Barium

Chromate

Chromium

Ferrocyanide

Bacteria

Lead

Arsenic

Selenium

SO3

S2O3

SiO2

HCO3

NO3

SO3

B4O2

F

PO4

Sr

Ba

CrO4

Cr

Fe(CN) 6

Bacteria

Pb

As

Se

98-99

96-99

85-90

90-95

60-75

96-98

30-50

87-93

98-99

98-99

96-98

86-92

96-99

98-99

95-98

96-98

94-96

94-96

 

 

 

 

21February

Catalytic Carbon for Chloramine removal

Catalytic Carbon Description

What are Chloramines ?

Most of us are familiar with chlorine, which is the disinfectant of choice in swimming pools  and also our public water supplies. Now, in the case of our drinking water supplies, it is being rapidly replaced by a substance called chloramine, a mix of chlorine and ammonia. The decline in the use of chlorine began with the relatively recent discovery of a group unsavory and often deemed carcinogenic disinfection by-products called trihalomethanes (THMs) that are formed when chlorine combines with organic matter in water.  To put this in practical terms, that pungent odour you get when you go to a public swimming pool, is most likely a cocktail of chloramines and trihalomethanes.  In a swimming pool, the chlorine may combine with ammonia ( from urine and sweat) to form chloramines.  The organics may react with the chlorine to form trihalomethanes- and we just don’t want to know where these organics came from? To meet EPA standards for THMs, which once created are hard to remove, municipal suppliers are turning increasingly to disinfection with chloramines, which produce much lower levels of trihalomethanes.

The problem with conventional activated carbon is that chloramines are very difficult to remove, and require much longer  contact times. It is no surprise that a significant portion of residential applications  experience ammonia or chloramine breakthrough, simply because there is not enough contact time.  Catalytic carbon was invented, and it  has the ability to completely remove chloramines requiring a significantly lower contact time. 

Catalytic carbon for removal of chloramines

Catalytic carbon for removal of chloramines

 

What is Catalytic Carbon ?

Catalytic carbon  has a modified surface performed by a chemical process in which the electronic structure of the carbon is altered in such a manner that the resulting carbon offers enhanced catalytic capability.Catalytic carbon retains conventional carbon’s ability to adsorb contaminants but it also possesses greatly enhanced capacity to catalyse, to promote beneficial chemical reactions. It is by catalytic action that chloramine is reduced. The activated carbon converts chlorine to chloride leaving behind ammonia.  And this is where the catalytic part comes to it’s own, as the ability to retain oxygen enables the ammonia to be oxidised.  Catalytic capacity of carbon is expressed by the peroxide number, which measures the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by the carbon. The faster a carbon will break down hydrogen peroxide, the greater its catalytic activity. The lower the peroxide number the more effective is the carbon to remove chloramines.

Why remove Chloramines from your water supply?

Chloramines possess a risk for hemodialysis patients and fish, because of their easy entry into the bloodstream through dialysis membranes and the gills of fish. Once in the blood stream, chloramines denature hemoglobin and cause hemolytic anemia. To avoid any accidental use of chloramines treated water, it is must to reduce the chloramines from drinking water as low as 0.5 ppm. While chloramines are not a drinking water health concern to humans generally, their removal improves the taste and odor of drinking water. There has been an increasing public awareness and concern about chloramines and also fluoride being added to our water supplies.   Soft drink manufacturers often want the chloramines removed to  prior to adding other substances to the purified water. Hospitals are also increasingly showing an interest in removing chloramines from their water supplies , to revert to the more conventional way of chlorination. 

Unlike the case of chlorine disinfection, when chloramines are present, there are usually trace amounts of ammonia and hydrochlorite as well in water.  Ammonia can be re moved with natural Zeolite or by Ion Exchange.  Softening can be used effectively for ammonia removal if the primary softener is allowed to load to a hardness endpoint and a polishing softener is used to remove ammonia. In this case, the primary softener must not be operated to hardness breakthrough, as this would cause an ammonia spike and lead to elevated ammonia levels in the final product water.

Also, chloramines are hardly present in ionic form. Due to the low molecular weight, chloramines, in particular monochloramines are difficult to remove from water by reverse osmosis (RO) or water softening. Boiling and distillation cannot be used either. To improve the taste and odour and to remove the inherently toxic chloramines, adsorption by catalytic activated carbon is one of the most promising processes. 

Introducing  Choramine Blocker GC 12X30SCI

GC 12x30SCI is a virgin activated carbon which is granular in form.  Made from selected grades of coconut shell, its enhanced microporosity makes it particularly well suited for the removal of most organic compounds, chlorinated by-products such as chloroform and chloramines and other trihalomethanes (THMs). It is also ideally suited for the removal of oxidising agents such as chlorine and ozone from process water. Its superior level of hardness makes it cleaner than most other carbons and gives it longer life expectancy. Certified by the NSF, it is suitable for drinking water and food grade applications.

To purchase this product, see the following link:http://www.pacificwater.com.au/product/catalytic-carbon/

 

21February

Personal Ozone Health Protector

Introducing our New Personal Ozone Health Protector

 

Pacific Water Technology has launched a new product into the Australian Market-

A personal battery operated ozone health protector for a wide range of potential applications.

 Pacific Water Technology, based in Brisbane is on the forefront of

 evolving ozone technology for personal and commercial applications.

The German designed  Aquapure personal  ozone health protector  uses the natural cleaning powers of O3 or Ozone to both clean and disinfect your fridge and extend the shelf life of  your produce.  The  low power consumption, ensures continual and long lasting freshness. This unit will help to eliminate the cross-contamination of food odours as well. This unit is small, and it won’t take up very much space in your fridge! These units are very affordable and come with a one year warranty!

Your personal health protector!

Your personal health protector!

Because ozone is a safe, powerful disinfectant, it can be used to control biological growth of unwanted organisms in products and equipment used in the food processing industries. Ozone has been used for many years in the food industry because of its ability to disinfect microorganisms without adding chemical by-products to the food being treated, or to the food processing water or atmosphere in which food are stored.

 

Application:

  • Car cigarette odour removal
  • Refrigerator/ freezer
  • Food storage
  • Bedroom
  • Food cabinet
  • Shoes cabinet
  • Toilet
  • Smoking room

 

 

Benefits of your personal Ozone Health Protector:

 

1, Enhances your immune system: The Health protector generates anions which help to improve the pulmonary function and myocardial function, also improving sleep, promotes metabolism, and enhances your immune system

2, Removes stale smells and odours: Health protector generates ozone which is a powerful oxidising agent, it will oxidise harmful toxic substances and odours including organics in the air, removing bad smells and relieves toxicity, and without any harmful by-products.

3, Remove dust & pollen and Kills bacteria & germs: Anion charged particles neutralise the positively charged particles floating in the air, it is able to eliminate dust, smoke and pollen particles, which carry allergies.

4, Extends shelf life of your produce in your fridge: Due to the strong oxidising power of ozone, spoilage organisms in your fridge are effectively eliminated thereby increasing the shelf life of your fruit and vegetables.  Any residual pesticides that may remain on the surface of produce, is also removed by the oxidising action of ozone. 

Extending the shelf live of your produce

Extending the shelf life of your produce


          
 

Your personal health protector

Your personal health protector

           

 

If you wish to order a personal health protector, they can be ordered on-line at:

http://www.pacificwater.com.au/product/aquapure-personal-ozone-generator/#

08November

ROTAMETERS

Rotameters for Liquids and Gases.

Pacific Water Technology is an Australian  supplier of high quality  rotameters for liquids and gases including specialised applications like ozone compatible rotameters. Rotameters are the most widely used type of variable-area (VA) flowmeter. In these devices, the falling and rising action of a float in a tapered tube provides a measure of flow rate.

rotameters

Rotameters provide economical measurement and visual indication of fluid flow

Rotameters are known as gravity-type flowmeters because they are based on the opposition between the downward force of gravity and the upward force of the flowing fluid. When the flow is constant, the float stays in one position that can be related to the volumetric flow rate.  This allows for the measurement of liquids and gases with the scale calibrated to suit the density of the medium. 

Pacific Water Technology stocks a wide range of acrylic tube Rotameters used widely in the water treatment industry.  These rotameters are available  with flanged or threaded connections( typically UPVC) in DN or ANSI specifications. Below is an example of an application for a reverse osmosis water treatment plant.

rotameter ro plant

The rotameters can  also be fitted with metallic float to allow for one or two flow switches .This allows for precise monitoring of flow conditions and alarms set at the required levels.

rotameter with flow switch

Pacific Water stock a wide range of rotameters for liquids and gases and we can also supply customised  rotameters to suit your specific needs.  This includes rotameters with guide rods or without , and also customised guide rods for corrosive fluids.  Some factors that need to be taken into consideration when choosing a rotameter:

  • Fluid type. The more information on the nature of the fluid, the better. Is it liquid, gas, or steam? If it is highly corrosive, give its chemical name, e.g., sulphuric acid, and its concentration. Are there entrained solids? 
  • Fluid density. Give specific units, such as grams per cubic centimeter, at a specified operating temperature. Alternatively, you can specify fluid-specific gravity, which is the ratio of the fluid density to the density of water (in the case of a liquid) or to that of air (in the case of a gas), at a specified temperature.
  • Fluid viscosity. Again, use specific units such as centipoises or centistokes at a specified operating temperature.
  • Operating and maximum temperature and pressure. This information is very important  for gas applications.
  • Flow rates. What are the minimum and maximum?
  • Required functions. What tasks will your system be expected to do? Will you need to incorporate indicators, control devices, alarms, or remote transmission capabilities?
  • Indicating scale type. Do you want your readout in percent, direct reading, or some other format?
  • Materials of construction. Don’t forget system components such as end fittings, O-rings, regulators, and valves.
  • Valve requirements.  Do you require to control the flow with a needle valve on the flow inlet or outlet?
  • Guide Rod. Do you require a guide rod for the float?

Typical Parameters for the types of Rotameters:

Flow range. Measuring liquid (water) flow rates from 0.65 lpm. to 2000 lpm in pipe from 1/8 to 4 in. dia. and gases (air) from 47 sccm to 24,354 lpm.

Design pressure (typical). Metal tube, to 10 mPag; glass tube, to2068kPag; plastic tube, to 689 kPag.

Design temperature (typical). Metal tube, to 482°C; glass tube, to 121°C; plastic tube, to 65°C

Scale. Linear

Signal. Visual and/or electronic

Accuracy. Typical accuracy ±2% to ±10% F.S., depending on type, size, and calibration

Repeatability. ±0.5% to ±1% F.S.

Viscosity. Liquids up to 200 cP

Rangeability. 5:1–12:1

Sizes. Up to 4 in.; also used as a bypass meter around a main line orifice for larger pipe sizes

Rotameters are not suitable for slurries, high viscosity liquids and  reverse  and pulsed flow. For more information on your rotameter requirements, please contact us on sales@pacificwater.com.au
 

08November

Benefits of Alkaline Water Filters

Alkaline Water Filters  and it’s Health Benefits

 

You probably have heard about the benefits of minerals in alkaline water and the benefits of  alkaline water .  However,  you don’t have to look too far to read about  negative publicity relating to  alkaline water . 

The negative  publicity  claims that your stomach fluids are acidic and you need the acidity to digest the food.  Others argue, that the amount of minerals in water can hardly make an impact  on the overall pH of your body.   The reality is that detractors of alkaline water often have a limited understanding of chemistry and the physiology of the human body.   Whether the stomach content is acidic, does not change the fact that the pH balance of most of the body is alkaline. The pH of blood for instance when in the healthy range should be between 7.35 and 7.45.  There is plenty of research showing the link between acidic pH and cancer. Cancer thrives in an acidic environment and cannot survive in an alkaline environment. Cancer cells make your body even more acidic as they produce lactic acid. So if you have cancer, your pH levels are low and your body is too acidic – See more at cancer fighting strategies. 

alkaline water ph scale

A lot of food we eat today is acidic and that includes grains, dairy products, fish, and meats like bacon  and turkey. All in all, the alkaline diet is a healthy alternative. Eating more fruits and vegetables, along with curbing your carb and dairy intake, may help balance pH levels within your body. Once it’s in a stable state, this can reduce daily complications and lower the possibility of greater, long-term risks. 

There is no doubt that water can play a vital role in helping maintain a stable  body pH.   Alkaline water in particular containing minerals and elevated pH will help in maintaining stable pH levels in your body.  the minerals are essential for your health and provide buffering capacity to neutralise acids.  Water may appear to be a simple molecule ( H20)- but we are yet to learn all about the different forms of water  and the secrets of the Hydronium Ion.

hydronium ion

Be amazed by the amazing properties of water – facts that most people don’t know.

There are a range of alkaline water filters on the market and the alkaline filter cartridges  can be retrofitted to most  Reverse Osmosis Filters.  These alkaline water filter cartridges  come in all shapes and sizes and  usually are connected up with simple but reliable push-in fittings. Some examples are listed below:

KClean Alkaline Cartridge:

Includes far-infrared ceramic balls incl Tourmaline, Mai -Fan Ceramic Stone

Far-Infrared ceramic balls incl Tourmaline:

Tourmaline gemstone is a semi-precious mineral stone well known for its incredible ability to aid in the detoxification process of the human body. It is one of only a handful of minerals that have the ability to emit negative ions and far-infrared rays. Tourmaline is best known as one of the only minerals to naturally emit far infrared heat and ionisation. Tourmaline exerts a cleansing energy on our nervous system. 

tourmaline ceramic ball

 

Mai-Fan Ceramic Stone: 

This rare natural mineral stone, combines with water to generate indispensable minerals for the body, such as Calcium, Iron, Silicon, Magnesium and Aluninium, at the same time, revitalising the water, emiting FIR (far-infrared rays) to produce `living water’.

The Mai-Fan Stone also adjusts the pH value and by the process of Ion Exchange neturalises the acids and turns the water into  alkaline water. 

 Maifanshi water has powerful antioxidant properties, many times superior to the presently known antioxidants (vitamins C, E, carotenoids, etc.).  

The filter also produces Hydrogen rich water. “Hydrogen-Rich Water” or hydrogenated water contains active hydrogen ions that act as powerful antioxidants in your body. The ions help eliminate oxygen free radicals that contribute to the development of illness and ultimately are responsible for the aging process.  Our body takes in the H2 and converts it into hydrogen anions, H-. or commonly termed as active hydrogen. Active Hydrogen is a powerful anti-oxidant as it is able to remove the active oxygen in our body that is known to be the cause of many types of chronic diseases. Molecular hydrogen also has anti-inflammatory effect besides its antioxidant properties. Inflammation is a silent killer that caused many chronic diseases. Hydrogen has also been found to have an anti-tumor effect.

 

The KClean Alkaline Cartridge produces potent  hydrogen rich antioxidant water and has been proven in laboratories to produce alkaline water and reduced chemical contamination.

alkaline water

 

Purepro Alkaline Cartridge

The Alkaline filter changes the acidic RO water into a perfect Natural Alkaline Ion Water. The PurePro® Alkaline filter simply gives back minerals such as ionised calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium ion, which were removed by the reverse osmosis process.It produces alkaline water which helps your body maintain a healthy pH level. The PurePro® Alkaline mineral filter is very  effective and  produces a  pH value of 8.00~9.50( depends on contact time)

 

  •    Produces perfectly pH-balanced alkaline water, helps minimise the fluctuations of your body’s pH.

  •    Converts  acidic drinking water into alkali calcium ionised water. 

  •    The natural calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium ions can be fully absorbed   by the body.

  •    It is easily absorbed in the body because it has structurally smaller molecules which help the body absorb  more water and hydrate more rapidly.

  •    This filter improves the qualities of clean water by adding minerals necessary for proper human development and health minerals, such as Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium and others readily found in many natural mineral waters.

Alkaline-Filter

All these alkaline filter cartridges and also water filters are available on our website

Alkaline water filters

 

 

And… Just a final word from an article in an on-line forum ” Smoke and Mirrors”  to the detractors of Traditional  Chinese Medicine:

Joey Says:

  1. Why do so many people think just because something is not understood that it is false. I am an mechanical engineer and business man. In my profession almost every experiment performed has some level of uncertainly and gives minor to major unexpected results. This is due to limited information and incomplete understanding of what we are working with.
    I think your drawing conclusions on your false assurance of your complete and total understanding of the world. Have you noticed even though modern medicine(only <100 years old profession) and doctors (before modern times only known as monks, shaman, and witch doctors) are now the undeniable and undisputed experts on nature and the human body. At least engineering has a good 2000 years of practice.
    Open your eyes. In the past 50 years, with all the advances in modern science, some how the human race is noticeably less healthy compared with earlier times. In old times, the most common cause of death were pneumonia and other infections. Now we have obesity, heart desease, stress related items. We are a mess as a race. Part of it is the pharmaceutical companies and their invention of ‘drugs’ that serve one purpose but cause major side effects which many attribute our continuous health problems to.
    The only medicians that can be ‘possibly’ proven worth taken are those with hundreds of years of use. Mainly oreintal remedies. ALL oil based pharmaceutical company drugs are not proven. No old and natural remedy will ever be accepted by the FDA. It cost on average $800million US dollars to get a DRUG through the FDA and approved. Noone other than a huge pharmaceutical company has the ability to finance this. One final point. Big Business is only interested in the bottom line(profit) for its stock holders. Do you want to put your life in the hands of these groups. Please, do not hand out these assumptions about possible remedies unless you have proof to the unsafeness or ineffectiveness. Every commercial you watch on TV about drugs is just brainwashing you to think they are safe and affective(repetition of an idea will eventually lend to the acceptance of that idea). Try to be a truth leader not a sheep follower.

     
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