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Citric Acid Uses

Citric Acid Uses 

Citric acid is a weak organic acid that is produced as a white crystalline powder. It is a natural food preservative that is also used to add an acidic, or sour taste to foods and soft drinks. In biochemistry, it is important as an intermediate in the Krebs (citric acid) cycle and therefore occurs in the metabolism of virtually all living things. Citric acid can also be used as an environmentally benign cleaning agent. It is also commonly used in the food industry as a preservative and also acidity regulator.

This article looks at some of the applications for citric acid.   Pacific Water Technology supplies the citric acid  as a crystalline powder (anhydrous) or solution with up to 50% concentration.  For specialised applications there is also a high purity solution made up with demineralised water and citric acid.

Some of the applications for citric acid:

Citric Acid for pH control: Citric acid is a weak organic acid and is often favoured for pH control in the food industry.  Some  examples are the poultry industry where chlorination is used in the spin chillers for disinfecting the chicken carcasses. The water has a very high organic load and chlorination can be very ineffective if not carried out at a pH of 6.5.  The reason for this is that the dissociation of the sodium hypochlorite into hypochlorous acid  is only effective at lower pH.  Citric acid can effectively reduce and maintain the pH at levels where chlorination is at its’ most effective without increasing the risk of generating dangerous levels of trihalomethanes and chloramines.

Citric Acid as preservative and food additive:

Citric Acid is commonly use in the food industry as a buffering agent, acidity regulator, preservative and food additive for food, beverages and pharmaceutical products.

In its broadest sense, a food additive is any substance added to food. Legally, the term refers to “any substance the intended use of which results or may reasonably be expected to result — directly or indirectly — in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food.”

In most of beverages, citric acid (E 330) is the first choice for use as an acid regulator, as it has several additional benefits, such as enhancing the activity of beneficial antioxidants and adding aroma

Citric Acid as a descaler

Citric acid is a popular environmental friendly descaler  for coffee machines , kettles, shower screens  and other areas that may experience scale build-up. It is also used in industrial scale often in conjunction with other cleaning agents for cleaning RO  and other membranes .   It is also used for descaling heat transfer surfaces in heat exchangers.




Rotameters for Liquids and Gases.

Pacific Water Technology is an Australian  supplier of high quality  rotameters for liquids and gases including specialised applications like ozone compatible rotameters. Rotameters are the most widely used type of variable-area (VA) flowmeter. In these devices, the falling and rising action of a float in a tapered tube provides a measure of flow rate.


Rotameters provide economical measurement and visual indication of fluid flow

Rotameters are known as gravity-type flowmeters because they are based on the opposition between the downward force of gravity and the upward force of the flowing fluid. When the flow is constant, the float stays in one position that can be related to the volumetric flow rate.  This allows for the measurement of liquids and gases with the scale calibrated to suit the density of the medium. 

Pacific Water Technology stocks a wide range of acrylic tube Rotameters used widely in the water treatment industry.  These rotameters are available  with flanged or threaded connections( typically UPVC) in DN or ANSI specifications. Below is an example of an application for a reverse osmosis water treatment plant.

rotameter ro plant

The rotameters can  also be fitted with metallic float to allow for one or two flow switches .This allows for precise monitoring of flow conditions and alarms set at the required levels.

rotameter with flow switch

Pacific Water stock a wide range of rotameters for liquids and gases and we can also supply customised  rotameters to suit your specific needs.  This includes rotameters with guide rods or without , and also customised guide rods for corrosive fluids.  Some factors that need to be taken into consideration when choosing a rotameter:

  • Fluid type. The more information on the nature of the fluid, the better. Is it liquid, gas, or steam? If it is highly corrosive, give its chemical name, e.g., sulphuric acid, and its concentration. Are there entrained solids? 
  • Fluid density. Give specific units, such as grams per cubic centimeter, at a specified operating temperature. Alternatively, you can specify fluid-specific gravity, which is the ratio of the fluid density to the density of water (in the case of a liquid) or to that of air (in the case of a gas), at a specified temperature.
  • Fluid viscosity. Again, use specific units such as centipoises or centistokes at a specified operating temperature.
  • Operating and maximum temperature and pressure. This information is very important  for gas applications.
  • Flow rates. What are the minimum and maximum?
  • Required functions. What tasks will your system be expected to do? Will you need to incorporate indicators, control devices, alarms, or remote transmission capabilities?
  • Indicating scale type. Do you want your readout in percent, direct reading, or some other format?
  • Materials of construction. Don’t forget system components such as end fittings, O-rings, regulators, and valves.
  • Valve requirements.  Do you require to control the flow with a needle valve on the flow inlet or outlet?
  • Guide Rod. Do you require a guide rod for the float?

Typical Parameters for the types of Rotameters:

Flow range. Measuring liquid (water) flow rates from 0.65 lpm. to 2000 lpm in pipe from 1/8 to 4 in. dia. and gases (air) from 47 sccm to 24,354 lpm.

Design pressure (typical). Metal tube, to 10 mPag; glass tube, to2068kPag; plastic tube, to 689 kPag.

Design temperature (typical). Metal tube, to 482°C; glass tube, to 121°C; plastic tube, to 65°C

Scale. Linear

Signal. Visual and/or electronic

Accuracy. Typical accuracy ±2% to ±10% F.S., depending on type, size, and calibration

Repeatability. ±0.5% to ±1% F.S.

Viscosity. Liquids up to 200 cP

Rangeability. 5:1–12:1

Sizes. Up to 4 in.; also used as a bypass meter around a main line orifice for larger pipe sizes

Rotameters are not suitable for slurries, high viscosity liquids and  reverse  and pulsed flow. For more information on your rotameter requirements, please contact us on sales@pacificwater.com.au


Nextsand Filters for suspended solids removal

Nextsand media filters for suspended solids removal and turbidity reduction


NextSand is a remarkable advance in media filtration technology. Based on a rare natural mineral that is highly processed and refined, nextSand’s unique properties allow it to significantly  alter the performance and cost of media filtration. The hardness, stability and micro-porous character of nextSand makes it a perfect filtration media for virtually every application in the water and wastewater treatment industry.NextSand has high filtration performance at <5 micron compared to 12 to 15 micron for multi media. It also has a higher flow capacity, typically three to four times that of multimedia.

Over recent times, multimedia filters have been progressively replaced with Zeolite filters. Natural zeolites are a low cost resource recognised for their unique absorption, catalytic and  ion exchange, properties; Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite but it varies greatly in both structure and purity. NextSand is a rare high-purity Clinoptilolite that offers the very best characteristics for use as water filtration media.

next sand

nextSand filtration media for very effective turbidity reduction in raw water and waste water

NextSand  is considered the world’s most advanced turbidity reduction media. In addition to providing much finer filtration than traditional sand and multi-media filters, NextSand requires less backwash rate and volume, has higher service flow rates for a given volume of media, and it costs less too! It also outperforms FilterAg, MicroZ, FilterZ and all other multi media used for turbidity reduction.   Nextsand does not replace other water treatment steps including coagulation and flocculation.   Fine suspended solids including bentonite will require pre-treatment prior to passing through the nextsand filter.


Features of NextSand  Filters

  • Most efficient filter on the market for turbidity reduction.
  • Very fine filtration (3 to 5 microns nominal filtration possible) 
  • High capacity filtration throughout the entire nextSand bed depth provides more than twice the dirt-holding capacity of multimedia filtration.
  • Cost-effective and long-lasting media (>5 years)
  • Superior flow rates 3-4 times that of multimedia
  • Optional automated periodic backwash -keeps the media clean and operating efficiently
  • Simple operation with no day-to-day maintenance

next Sand is suitable for use in gravity feed   systems, as well as pressurised  vessels(vertical or horizontal)  It can be therefore used in a wide  range of applications in the water and waste water industry .

Applications of nextSand :

  • Reverse osmosis pre treatment with superior silt density index (SDI) reduction
  • Cooling towers with excellent  turbidity removal
  • Municipal water treatment, pressure and gravity filters with higher flow, low pressure drop and superior filtration performance
  • Desalination  and brackish  water treatment RO plants
  • Swimming pool and Spa filtration with high Ammonia removal
  • Wastewater polishing with very effective total suspended solids (TSS) removal
  • Precipitated metals removal
  • Carwash  water recycling
  • Irrigation
  • Recycling of  water used in dairies,  vegetable washing etc.

Pacific Water Technology is based in Brisbane and we ship nextSand media nationwide to all states.   We can design the nextSand media  filter to meet your specific needs and water quality parameters. Just give us a call on 1300 CLEANWATER or complete the enquiry form on our website.

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