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Iron Removal Filter with automated backwash valve, for removal of up to 10 ppm iron in ground water.


Process Description

  • Iron in rural groundwater supplies is a common problem: its concentration level ranges from 0 to 50 mg/l, while WHO recommended level is < 0.3 mg/l. The iron occurs naturally in the aquifer but levels in groundwater can be increased by dissolution of ferrous borehole and submersible pump components. Iron-bearing groundwater is often noticeably orange in colour, causing discoloration of laundry, and has an unpleasant taste, which is apparent in drinking and food preparation.
  • Iron dissolved in groundwater is in the reduced iron II form. This form is soluble and normally does not cause any problems by itself. Iron II is oxidised to iron III on contact with oxygen in the air or by the action of iron related bacteria. Iron III forms insoluble hydroxides in water. These are rusty red and cause staining and blockage of screens, pumps, pipes, reticulation systems etc. If the iron hydroxide deposits are produced by iron bacteria then they are also sticky and the problems of stain and blockage are many times worse. The presence of iron bacteria may be indicated by rusty slime inside the pipework, reduced water flow form the bore and unpleasant odour from water pumped from the bore, slimy deposits blocking main and lateral lines, severe staining on pavements and fixtures.

Filtration Media Description

  • Greensand is the most common chemical oxidant used, it has a relatively high capacity for iron removal and can operate at relative higher flow rates with moderate backwash requirements. Greensand is a processed material consisting of nodular grains of the zeolite mineral glauconite. The material is coated with manganese oxide. The ion exchange properties of the glauconite facilitates the bonding of the coating. This treatment gives the media a catalytic effect in the chemical oxidation reduction reactions necessary for iron and manganese removal. This coating is maintained through regeneration with potassium permanganate – about 1.5 to 2 oz. per cubic foot of greensand.

  • Unlike Birm, chlorination aids in the filtration process and does not harm the filter media. Greensand works under more acidic conditions, down to a pH of 6.2. Filters using this media remove manganese and hydrogen sulphide. 
  • To provide the oxidizing power to precipitate iron and manganese, greensand iron filters are commonly automatically cleaned and restored with potassium permanganate during each backwash cycle. This is known as intermittent regeneration. As an alternative to potassium permanganate powder, a chlorine injector pump can be used ahead of the greensand filter to regenerate the filter media continuously, a process known as continuous regeneration. Greensand media generally need to be replaced every four to six years, although under the right conditions and proper maintenance, it has been known to last for 10 years or more.
  • For some applications in which the water has hydrogen sulphide “rotten-egg” odor and/or iron bacteria, a good practice is to chlorinate the water prior to the greensand filter. The injection of chlorine ( or ozone) substantially increases the effectiveness of the greensand media, and allows it to work without the use of potassium permanganate and remove higher levels of iron and manganese.


Other advantages of Greensand include:

Process Conditions

  • Long material life with relatively low attrition loss
  • Can be used for the removal of iron, manganese and hydrogen sulphide over a wide pH range.
  • Is a much lighter medium compared to Pyrolusite and Filox, hence requiring lower backwash rate.  Is more dense than Birm, hence requiring a higher backwash rate.
  • Moderate contact time required, as the manganese dioxide acts as a catalyst.


  • Continuous or intermittent regeneration required.
  • Intermittent regeneration using potassium permanganate
  • Continuous regeneration  using Sodium Hypochlrite.
  • Can operate at a pH as low as 6.2- for acidic water pH correction is recommended for accellerated  chemical reaction kinetics.
  • Freeboard should be 50% minimum
  • Backwash Bed expansion 30-40%.
  • Service flow rate: 3.5 to 5 gpm/ ft3 and 8-10 gpm/ft3 intermittent flow.
  • Backwash flow rate: 10-12 gpm/ft3.
  • Max. limit for Fe and Mn is 15 ppm.
  • Max. limit for H2S is 3 ppm.

Fibreglass reinforced plastic pressure vessel as per BS 4994 with 5 year structural guarantee. 

Maximum operating pressure of 1034 kPa and maximum operating Temperature of 50°C for polyester, and 66°C for vinyl ester.


Vessel Size 8x44" 10x54” 13x54" 16x65"
Valve Type Fleck 5600 Fleck 5600  


Service flow rate- m3/hr( at 15m3/hr per m2)  0.6 0.8  1.2  2.2
Volume of  Greensand–liters  17 35  52  98
Backwash(m3/hr)  0.6 0.8  1.2  2.2
Inlet/Outlet  3/4" 1”  1"  1"
Approximate Shipping Weight (kg)  50  75  95  185
Overall height(cm)  115 140  140  170




Service flow rate is dependent on actual water conditions and level of iron and other contaminants, as well as pH and level of dissolved oxygen.  Dissolved gases like Carbon Dioxide should be removed, prior to treatment in this filter. This can be achieved by aerating the water using a venturi eductor.

Low pH should be corrected prior to iron removal by using a Calcite filter, or direct dosing with Soda Ash. A calcite filter will add hardness to the water, which may require a water softener.  Soda Ash dosing can be economically achieved by using a liquid eductor, which will facilitate proportional dosing.

Soda Ash (Sodium Carbonate) will not impact on the water hardness, however low alkalinity water may be corrosive, therefor necessitating the addition of a buffer, like Sodium Bicarbonate.

Manganese Greensand

MangaeseGreensandManganese greensand is a purple-black filter media used for removal soluble iron, manganese and hydrogen sulphide from well water supplies. It also has the capacity of removing radium and arsenic. It is processed from the mineral glauconite that is zeolite. Using iron exchange properties of this natural zeolite, a manganese dioxide coating is deposited on the surface of the glauconite grains. The manganese dioxide acts as a catalyst in the oxidation reduction reaction of iron and manganese. The media can be used in two methods of operations: continuous regeneration (CR) and intermittent regeneration (IR).



  • Iron reduction over wide pH range
  • Effective reduction of hydrogen sulphide in addition to iron and/or manganese
  • No harmful effects from a chlorine feed
  • Low attrition for long bed life

Physical Characteristics

  • Color: black
  • Bulk Density: 85 lbs./cu. ft.
  • Specific Gravity: 2.4
  • Effective Size: .30 – .35 mm
  • Uniformity Coefficienty: 1.6
  • Mesh Size: 16 – 60
  • Hardness: 6 – 7 (Mohs scale)

Operational Specifications

  • Water pH range: 6.2 – 8.5
  • Bed depth: 30 in.
  • Freeboard: 50% of bed depth (min.)
  • Service flow rate: 3 – 5 gpm/sq. ft.
  • Backwash flow rate: 10 – 12 gpm/sq. ft.
  • Backwash expansion rate: 40% of bed depth


5 Year structural warranty on the pressure vessel.

We warrant that this product is free of defects of both material and workmanship for a period of one year.

Any product found to be defective will be replaced at no cost, except for any associated freight charges.

Prior to any returns, please contact our Customer Care Service in order for us to assess your warrantee claim.

For more information on installation please download below document.

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