Description- Nitrate/Nitrite removal media for aquarium LSI 106Plus.
Nitrate/Nitrite removal media for aquariums is a very effective and safe way to remove excessive nitrates/nitrites from your aquarium especially in circumstances where the biological filter is not working properly, or you have a high population of fish. The nitrates/nitrites are safely removed by adsorbing into the ion exchange media that can either be replaced when saturated, or regenerated. By only treating a selective amount of nitrates/nitrites enough nitrogen can be retained to provide nutrients for the biological filter.
Ion exchangers are resins that are polymers with cross-linking ( connections between long carbon chains in a polymer ). The resin has active groups in the form of electrically charged sites. At these sites, ions of opposite charge are attracted but may be replaced by other ions depending on their relative concentrations and affinities for the sites. Two key factors determine the effectiveness of a given ion exchange resin: favourability of any given ion, and the number of active sites available for this exchange. To maximise the active sites, significant surface areas are generally desirable. The active sites are one of a few types of functional groups that can exchange ions with either plus or minus charge. Frequently, the resins are cast in the form of porous beads.
Cross-linking, usually on the order of 0.5 to 15 percent, comes from adding divinyl benzene to the reaction mixture during production of the resin. The size of the particles also plays a role in the utility of the resin. Smaller particles usually are more effective because of increased surface area but cause large head losses that drive up pump equipment and energy costs. Temperature and pH also affect the effectiveness of ion exchange, since pH is inherently tied to the number of ions available for exchange, and temperature governs the kinetics of the process. The rate-limiting step is not always the same, and temperature’s role is still not thoroughly understood.
Regeneration of the resin is also a feature of ion exchange. The resin is flushed free of the newly-exchanged ions and contacted with a solution of the ions to replace them. Regeneration is initiated after most of the active sites have been used and the ion exchange is no longer effective. With regeneration, the same resin beads can be used over and over again, and the ions that we are looking to get out of the system can be concentrated in the backwash effluent, which is just a term for the spent fluid used to regenerate the ion exchanger.
Nowadays, the ion exchange substances are used almost exclusively under the name of resins. There are two categories of resins: the resins of the gel type and those of the macroporous or loosely cross-linked type. Their basic structure is identical: the macromolecular structure is obtained in both cases by co-polymerization. The difference between them lies in their porosity.
|Gel type resins have a natural porosity limited to intermolecular distances. It is a microporous type structure||Macroporous type resins have an additional artificial porosity which is obtained by adding a substance designed for this purpose.|
The exchanger is known as monofunctional if there is only one variety of radicals and it is called polyfunctional if the molecule contains various type of radicals.
Ammonia/Nitrates/Nitrites in aquarium water.
What is nitrate?
Nitrates and nitrites are nitrogen-oxygen chemical units which combine with various organic and inorganic compounds. Nitrates in concentrations above 10 ppm expressed as N* (this can be expressed as 35.7 ppm as calcium carbonate or 44.3 ppm as nitrate) are considered unsafe. Nitrates have no detectable color, taste or smell at the concentrations involved in drinking water supplies, and they do not cause discoloration of plumbing fixtures, so they remain undetectable to our senses.
Ammonia, Nitrites, and Nitrates
Ammonia, nitrites and nitrates are all byproducts of waste breaking down in an aquarium, and all are toxic at some level to your fish and plant life. A significant amount of fish and plant waste can accumulate in any tank, as well as uneaten food, algae, and bacteria. As in all environments, this waste needs to be broken down and either eliminated or turned into something which can be utilized by another organism. In an aquarium, there is a population of bacteria that is responsible for this process. The breakdown of waste is a four-part process:
- First, the waste from fish, plants, and food breaks down and releases ammonia.
- This ammonia is very toxic to fish and must be converted to nitrite by bacteria.
- Nitrite is also toxic to fish, and must be converted to nitrate by bacteria.
- Nitrate is not nearly as toxic, and is used by plants or algae to help them grow.
If a fish tank is overcrowded, or waste levels get too high through overfeeding, even a properly functioning biological filter can be overwhelmed, resulting in toxic conditions. Periodically checking the ammonia and nitrite levels in your tank with a test kit will ensure that your biological filter is working correctly.
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION-Nitrate/Nitrite removal media for aquarium LSI 106Plus.
SEPLITE® LSI 106 Plus is a special strong base anion resin developed for nitrate removal, especially from aquarium water. Our nitrate selective resins have increased selectivity for nitrate and prefer nitrate over sulphate and other anions, even at very low TDS. This increased preference prevents nitrate dumping.
LSI 106 Plus has good mechanical strength and excellent resistance to osmotic and thermal shock.
Application-Nitrate/Nitrite removal media for aquarium LSI 106Plus.
The nitrate/nitrite removal media should be loaded into a special cartridge designed to retain the media . Larger empty cartridges are also available including 4.5″ x20″ refillable cartridges. For commercial applications we recommend FRP cylinders with automated regeneration.
The flow rate should not exceed three Resin bed volumes per hour – for instance, for 30 litres of resin in a filter the flow rate should not exceed 30 litres/hour.
When new resin is used always flush the resin for at least 30 minutes before connecting to the recirculating loop of your aquarium filtration system .
Nitrate/Nitrite removal filters should not replace a biological filter and should be set up that sufficient nutrients are still available for the biological filter to perform sufficiently. Regular testing of ammonia, nitrates/ nitrites is recommended .
SEPLITE® LSI 106 is specially prepared to be taste and odour free and is WQA certified to meet the ANSI/NSF 61 standard for potable water. This resin can be regenerated using 8-10% NaCl, 1-2 BV.